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Canada’s Inflation-control strategy

From the Central Bank in Canada.

Inflation control and the economy

Inflation control is not an end in itself; it is the means whereby monetary policy contributes to solid economic performance.

• Low, stable, and predictable inflation allows the economy to function more effectively. This contributes to better economic growth over time and works to moderate cyclical fluctuations in output and employment.

The monetary policy instrument

• Announcements regarding the CB’s policy instrument—the target overnight interest rate—take place, under normal circumstances, on eight pre-specified dates during the year.
• In setting a target for the overnight rate, the Bank of Canada influences short-term interest rates to achieve a rate of monetary expansion consistent with the inflation-control target. The transmission mechanism is complex and involves long and variable lags—the impact on inflation from changes in policy rates is usually spread over six to eight quarters.

The targets

• In February 1991, the federal government and the Bank of Canada jointly agreed on a series of targets for reducing total CPI inflation to the midpoint of a range of 1 to 3 per cent by the end of 1995. The inflation target has been extended a number of times. In November 2006, the agreement was renewed for a period of five years to the end of 2011. Under this agreement, the Bank will continue to conduct monetary policy aimed at keeping total CPI inflation at 2 per cent, with a control range of 1 to 3 per cent around the target.

Monitoring inflation

• In the short run, a good deal of movement in the CPI is caused by transitory fluctuations in the prices of such volatile components as fruit and gasoline, as well as by changes in indirect taxes. For this reason, the Bank uses a core measure of CPI inflation as an indicator of the underlying trend in inflation. This core measure excludes eight of the most volatile components of the CPI and adjusts the remaining components to remove the effect of changes in indirect taxes.


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